URL is an abbreviation for Universal Resource Locator. Its purpose is to identify the location of a document or another resource and define a mechanism for accessing it through a client’s web browser.
Various components of the URL syntax
Scheme Name: Describes the protocol that a web browser will use to access a particular resource on the World Wide Web. Scheme names are immediately followed by three character that are namely, a colon and two slashes.
Host Name: designates the location of a resource.
Port Number: This is used to make a request to a server by specifying the kind of services that a client computer wants to access. Port numbers are omitted in the URLs of many websites because they are obvious – the http web service is normally delivered on port 80.
Path: Points to the specific resource in a host that a user intends to view.
Query String: It contains data that is targeted to server-side scripts – these are mostly search parameters.
Fragment Identifier: it is an optional part of a URL that is used to specify a section within a page so that a browser will automatically scroll to it when a user clicks on the URL to that page.