Top 10 Fortran Interview Questions and Answer

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What is FORTRAN?

Fortran is an acronym that is derived from Formula Translation. It is one of the early high level programming languages that were used in the 1960s when the computer revolution begun. BASIC is based on Fortran.

Fortran Interview QuestionsFortran Interview Questions and Answer: Fortran is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. FORTRAN is generally the preferred spelling for discussions of versions of the language prior to the current one (‘90”). Fortran is the spelling chosen by X3J3 and WG5. Fortran Interview Questions and Answer: In this document a feeble effort has been made to capitalize accordingly (e.g. vast existing software … FORTRAN vs. generic Fortran to mean all versions of the standard, and specifically the modern dialect, ISO 1539:1991).

State a few advantages of using Fortran

  • It supports numerical analysis and scientific computation.
  • It is an Object Oriented Programing language
  • It is readable and easy to understand

Explain what arrays are in Fortran

A collection of data types or variables. In Fortran programmers can include up to 7 dimensional arrays.

Explain why Fortran is faster than C

When mathematical functions are being evaluated, the former handles memory references very well.  C uses pointers that can be challenging to optimize while performing mathematical tasks.

What is a subroutine in Fortran?

A subroutine can modify the arguments of a program although it does not return a value.

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What is a module in Fortran?

Functions and subroutines that are stored together so that they can be used in various parts of the entire program. In other words a large program is spliced into modules for simplicity.

Explain using examples how variables are declared in Fortran

The syntax for declaring variables is type-specifier :: list. The type specifier can be INTEGER, REAL, COMPLEX, LOGICAL, AND CHARACTER.

What are reserved keywords?

They are words that cannot be used as identifiers. Fortran does not have reserved words although it has identifiers like END, PROGRAM, and DO.

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How do you define a function in Fortran

A function is a type of a procedure that only returns a single quantity. Here is the syntax for a function.

Syntax:-
function name(arg1, arg2, ….)
[declarations, including those for the arguments]
[executable statements]
end function [name]

What are the basic data types in Fortran

Integer type

Real type

Complex type

Logical type

Character type

Fortran Interview Questions and Answer – Obsolescence and deletions

Obsolescent featureExampleStatus/fate in Fortran 95
Arithmetic IF-statement
      IF (X) 10, 20, 30
Deprecated
Non-integer DO parameters or control variables
      DO 9 X= 1.7, 1.6, -0.1
Deleted
Shared DO-loop termination or
termination with a statement
other than END DO or CONTINUE
      DO 9 J= 1, 10
          DO 9 K= 1, 10
  9       L=  J + K
Deprecated
Branching to END IF
from outside a block
 66   GO TO 77 ; . . .
      IF (E) THEN ;     . . .
 77   END IF
Deleted
Alternate return
      CALL SUBR( X, Y, *100, *200 )
Deprecated
PAUSE statement
      PAUSE 600
Deleted
ASSIGN statement
and assigned GO TO statement
 100   . . .
      ASSIGN 100 TO H
       . . .
      GO TO H . . .
Deleted
Assigned statement numbers and FORMAT specifiers
      ASSIGN 606 TO F ... WRITE ( 6, F )...
Deleted
H edit descriptors
 606  FORMAT ( 9H1GOODBYE. )
Deleted
Computed GO TO statement
      GO TO (10, 20, 30, 40), index
(obsolete)
Statement functions
      FOIL( X, Y )=  X**2 + 2*X*Y + Y**2
(obsolete)
DATA statements
among executable statements
      X= 27.3
      DATA  A, B, C  / 5.0, 12.0, 13.0 /
      . . .
(obsolete)
CHARACTER* form of CHARACTER declaration
      CHARACTER*8 STRING   ! Use CHARACTER(8)
(obsolete)
Assumed character length functions
      CHARACTER*(*) STRING
(obsolete)[31]
Fixed form source codeColumn 1 contains C or * or ! for comments.
Columns 1 through 5 for statement numbers
Any character in column 6 for continuation.
Columns 73 and up ignored
(obsolete)

Code examples of fortran

program average

  ! Read in some numbers and take the average
  ! As written, if there are no data points, an average of zero is returned
  ! While this may not be desired behavior, it keeps this example simple

  implicit none

  real, dimension(:), allocatable :: points
  integer                         :: number_of_points=0.0
  real                            :: average_points=0., positive_average=0., negative_average=0.

  write (*,*) "Input number of points to average:"
  read  (*,*) number_of_points

  allocate (points(number_of_points))

  write (*,*) "Enter the points to average:"
  read  (*,*) points

  ! Take the average by summing points and dividing by number_of_points
  if (number_of_points > 0) average_points = sum(points) / number_of_points

  ! Now form average over positive and negative points only
  if (count(points > 0.) > 0) then
     positive_average = sum(points, points > 0.) / count(points > 0.)
  end if

  if (count(points < 0.) > 0) then
     negative_average = sum(points, points < 0.) / count(points < 0.)
  end if

  deallocate (points)

  ! Print result to terminal
  write (*,'(a,g12.4)') 'Average = ', average_points
  write (*,'(a,g12.4)') 'Average of positive points = ', positive_average
  write (*,'(a,g12.4)') 'Average of negative points = ', negative_average

end program average

What Is The Difference Between If Then And Do While Statements?

IF THEN combined with GO TO statements will let you do anything you want. The DO WHILE and other DO constructs allow you to loop through certain portions of code many times without ever writing GO TO statements. This makes coding slightly simpler, definitely clearer.

What are the commonly used character functions in Fortran?

The commonly used character functions in Fortran are:

  • len(string)
  • index(string,sustring)
  • achar(int)
  • iachar(c)
  • trim(string)
  • scan(string, chars)
  • verify(string, chars)
  • adjustl(string)
  • adjustr(string)
  • len_trim(string)
  • repeat(string,ncopy)

What is DBLE (A) function?

DBLE (A) function: It is a Numeric Function which is used to convert A to a double precision real number.

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